DEHUMANI2ATION 5l the same principle which was in the Utopia of Plato, and in medieval theocracy. The Jacobin democracy undertakes to organize the spirit by the same methods as those by which it organizes the material. Democracy, too, turns toward a sort of etatism, the absoluteness of the state. In France to-day considerable freedom exists, bound up with all the cultural treasure of the French people, joined to a respect for the dignity of human personality. But the radical party, domi- nant in France, and uniting itself to the Jacobin tradition, also professes one form of etatism : it is a party of a definite world-view and would have the state educate its people in it. But this too is ideocracy, a softened and modified form of the dictatorship of a world-view. It will always be thus, when man is held to be a creature of only one plane, when he is considered as a social entity only, determined exclusively by society and the state. That is to deny man's self-being and the independence of his life on the plane of the spiritual. Christianity reveals and coiifirms man's belong- ing to two planes of being, to the spiritual and to the natural-social, to the Kingdom of God and the Kingdom of Caesar. Christianity affirms that man belongs at once to the realm of liberty and that of necessity, and maintains that these two are incommensurate and incapable of complete fusion.